ARI SHAPIRO, HOST:

This is the day of remembrance of the genocide against Armenian people in Turkey that took place just over a century ago. Up to one and a half million Armenians were killed. Turkey has always rejected the term genocide, saying the violence against Armenians was part of widespread conflict in the region.

Taner Akcam has spent his career documenting the targeted killing of Armenian Turks at the start of World War I. He’s a Turkish historian at Clark University. And he recently found a document that he calls the smoking gun. Professor Akcam, welcome to the program.

TANER AKCAM: Thank you very much.

SHAPIRO: What is this telegram that you described to The New York Times as a smoking gun?

AKCAM: It is a telegram sent July 4, 1915. And the telegram says the following – are the Armenians who were deported from there being liquidated? Are the troublesome individuals whom you have reported as having been exiled and expelled been eliminated or merely sent off and deported? Please report honestly.

So this is the telegram. And we knew the existence of such a telegram. It was quoted in several indictments and verdicts during the military tribunals in Istanbul. And I discovered the original with an Ottoman letterhead. This is the discovery.

SHAPIRO: Now, one reason Turkey has been able to deny the genocide is that so many of the records of the court proceedings were destroyed or somehow vanished and so all we have is historians’ accounts and journalists’ accounts. This seems to be pretty extraordinary in that respect. Put it into context for us.

AKCAM: What we were missing in Armenian genocide is the so-called smoking gun because all relevant documents were taken out from Ottoman archive or all these materials – telegrams, eyewitness accounts, they were all gone. We didn’t know whereabouts of all these documents. And mainly, the denial strategy was show us the originals. So I discovered in a private archive this telegram.

SHAPIRO: Yeah. It took some real sleuthing. Explain how you discovered this.

AKCAM: I mean, we already knew that these telegrams ended in Armenian patriarch in Jerusalem but this archive is closed. Somehow because of unknown reasons, they don’t allow us historians to go and work with material.

SHAPIRO: So you knew these crucial documents were in Jerusalem in this archive but you couldn’t get access to them?

AKCAM: Yes, exactly, this was the story.

SHAPIRO: And so how did you finally get it?

AKCAM: Because of an Armenian Catholic priest, Krikor Guerguerian. He went to this archive end of 1960s. And he filmed all the materials there. And he had a private archive. And it was saved and secured by his nephew.

SHAPIRO: So the priest died, his nephew took this document and you got it from the nephew?

AKCAM: Exactly.

SHAPIRO: How do you hope this telegram will change the conversation surrounding the Armenian genocide?

AKCAM: I think Turkish government must try or develop some new strategies to deny the Armenian genocide. They cannot deny as they have been denying over the years. It is over now. There is no way to escape. They have to face this reality. This is a telegram with an Ottoman letterhead and we with the Ottoman coding system.

SHAPIRO: You are Turkish. You are not Armenian. Why have you devoted your life, your career, to studying the Armenian genocide?

AKCAM: I’m a historian. It is my job to educate new generation on violence in the past so that this should not happen again in the future. The second important reason is my firm belief that democracy can only establish in Turkey if Turkey faces its own history.

SHAPIRO: Taner Akcam, thank you so much for your time.

AKCAM: Thank you very much.

Copyright © 2017 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information.

NPR transcripts are created on a rush deadline by Verb8tm, Inc., an NPR contractor, and produced using a proprietary transcription process developed with NPR. This text may not be in its final form and may be updated or revised in the future. Accuracy and availability may vary. The authoritative record of NPR’s programming is the audio record.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/24/525441639/recently-discovered-telegram-reveals-evidence-for-armenian-genocide?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

In “The Fish on My Plate,” author and fisherman Paul Greenberg sets out to answer the question “what fish should I eat that’s good for me and good for the planet?” As part of his quest to investigate the health of the ocean — and his own — Greenberg spent a year eating seafood at breakfast, lunch and dinner.

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In “The Fish on My Plate,” author and fisherman Paul Greenberg sets out to answer the question “what fish should I eat that’s good for me and good for the planet?” As part of his quest to investigate the health of the ocean — and his own — Greenberg spent a year eating seafood at breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Courtesy of FRONTLINE

Facts about the virtues of eating fish can be slippery. On the one hand, fish provide protein and omega-3 fatty acids, the substance in fish oil supplements, which is thought to boost cognitive health. Plus, unlike cows, fish don’t belch vast amounts of the greenhouse gas methane into the air. So, fish should be good for your health and the environment. But the science of omega-3 benefits is far from settled, and as fish farming grows to keep up with global demand, the industry is raising new questions about environmental sustainability.

New York Times bestselling author and avid fisherman Paul Greenberg wanted to learn more about how eating fish can change human health and the world’s marine environments. He ate fish every day for a year to see how it would affect his health and traveled around the world to learn more about the challenges of fish farming. His experience is captured in a FRONTLINE documentary called The Fish on My Plate airing Tuesday. (You can also watch it online.)

We watched the film and talked with Greenberg about what he learned while making this documentary. The conversation is edited for clarity and concision.

As a fisherman who enjoys catching food from the wild, do you think we need fish farming?

If everyone’s going to be a vegan, no, we don’t need fish farming. If we want to have animal protein in our lives, then yes, I think we do need it. People often compare wild fish to farmed fish, but what we should really be doing is comparing fish to other forms of protein. Because things like beef really are a tremendous burden on the planet in terms of resources, we’re never going to get to the place where everybody on the planet can eat beef. But I do think we’ll get to a place where everybody can eat mussels.

Only eating wild fish doesn’t work with the equation right now. We’re catching 80-90 million metric tons of wild fish per year, and that’s not going to meet the protein needs of the world, plus it’s putting a lot of pressure on fish populations. I’d rather see that need met through aquaculture [fish farming] than through more beef, pigs or chickens.

What makes a fish a good candidate for aquaculture?

Some criteria are a general adaptability to confinement, a resistance to disease, the ability to produce a lot of offspring, and fast growth. And you see fish with these traits rising to the top of fish farming. Take tilapia. It grows very fast, from an egg to an adult in nine months, whereas a salmon can take 2-3 years.

That said, people like some fish more than others. So there are efforts in aquaculture to tame certain fish [like salmon] because there’s a market for it, not because they’re the best suited for farming.

The film shows that fish farming is far from perfect. What are the biggest challenges facing fish farming?

It’s what the farmed fish eat and where they live.

We tend to prefer carnivorous fish like salmon, and they like to eat other fish. So roughly 20 million metric tons per year — a quarter to a fifth of the global catch — goes into catching fish like anchovies that are ground up and fed to other fish. Salmon farming has become more efficient over the years through selective breeding and improved farming techniques. It used to take six pounds of wild fish to produce one pound of farmed salmon; now it takes less than two pounds of wild fish. But at the same time, the amount of farmed salmon that we’re growing is increasing, so the pressure on these small wild fish continues.

This problem is being worked out in techniques using other food sources, like fishery byproducts that would have been thrown out anyway, algae, or soldier flies, for example, to make fish feed.

What’s the problem with where fish farms are located?

This is a thornier issue. Any time you aggregate large amounts of livestock in an area, you’re going to attract disease. In the case of salmon, the most famous disease is a parasite called a sea louse. When wild salmon swim past farms, the sea lice can infect them. If a juvenile salmon gets more than 10 sea lice, it will die.

The other issue is that if you have a lot of animals poop in one place, you can have nitrate overload, and cause algal blooms in the marine environment. So there are lots of people who would like to see fish farms taken out of the ocean entirely and moved to a tank.

Norway, the country where modern fish farming was invented. Fish farms are becoming more popular as global demand for fish grows.

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Norway, the country where modern fish farming was invented. Fish farms are becoming more popular as global demand for fish grows.

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The documentary goes through a lot of potential solutions. What do you think the most promising ones are?

The no-brainer is that we should eat more kelp and mussels, because they just filter water and get their nutrients without being fed. But of course not everybody likes mussels or kelp.

Farmed fish can be acceptable, if we’re getting more protein out of it than we’re losing to disease and fish feed. I’m not sure if anyone has run the numbers. The issue is that if consumers aren’t aware of all of the options for farmed fish out there, they’ll just go with what’s cheapest. I did come across a farm in Norway where they were stocking fish less densely. To feed the fish, they were using offcuts of other fisheries, instead of directly harvested wild fish. And they were trying to address the sea lice problem with a fish called a lumpsucker that eats the lice [instead of using medicine to kill them, which can kill some other forms of sea life like shrimp as well].

Lumpsuckers are so cute!

They are cute. There’s an extended scene that got cut from the documentary where I kept trying to get a lumpsucker — [which has adhesive discs on its chest] — to stick to my forehead. I couldn’t get it to.

You already knew a lot about fish when you started making this documentary. Is there anything you learned that surprised you?

One thing I learned is that about a third of wild salmon in Alaska start their lives in a hatchery. They’re hatched [by private nonprofits and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game] to boost the productivity of rivers. It’s an issue that comes up because the salmon farming community competes with Alaskan fishers for consumers. When farmers get a lot of heat from the Alaskan wild fishing community, the farming community will say, “Hey, you’re just ranching salmon. You’re doing aquaculture, but you’re not calling it aquaculture.”

I knew a little bit about the hatcheries, but I’d never heard the Alaskan fisher’s side of things. The fishers said that often these salmon are being introduced into inlands that never had salmon to begin with, so these salmon aren’t competing with wild-born salmon, and really are supplementing the population.

What is better for the environment – farmed or wild salmon? The new Frontline documentary, The Fish On My Plate, tries to answer that question in this clip.


Courtesy Paul Greenberg
YouTube

Now let’s switch to the more personal part of the documentary. You ditched land meat and ate fish every day for a year to see how the diet would affect your health. Specifically, you were interested in getting a higher level of omega-3s. What are omega-3s?

Omega-3 is a fatty acid, a long hydrocarbon chain with a double bond at the third spot from the end, which seems to make it particularly bendy and adaptable to serving multiple purposes in the cell. It is the Forrest Gump of molecules.

How so?

Whenever an important health issue comes up, so does omega-3. But we’re never quite sure what it does. When people first started talking about it in the 70s, everyone got very excited because a study found a correlation between omega 3-s and low levels of heart disease. Since then, we’ve gotten statins, we’ve gotten angioplasty — all these ways of dealing with heart disease. So we’re not as focused on how, if at all, omega-3s affect heart health anymore.

What we worry about now is dementia. So now everyone’s obsessed with omega-3′s neurological effects. And of course we’re obsessed with our children and how smart they are, so we want them getting enough omega-3s. [Click here for a study The Salt covered about the effect of omega-3s on brain functioning.]

What is it like to eat fish for a whole year? Did you get sick of it?

I got sick of it at the beginning, but then I broke through. Two things happened: First, once the meat section of the supermarket became a no-fly zone, instead of looking at fish as one of four options — chicken, beef, pork, or fish — I started to see fish as containing many options within its self-contained world. There was one that might be nice broiled, or another that might be nice with a sage sauce, and another that might be brought out by rosemary. It led me to a much more diverse approach to cooking fish.

The other thing that happened with eating fish all the time is that I lost weight. Now, there’s a confounding factor: When you go to a restaurant, the fish always comes with the healthy stuff. If you order the steak, it comes with fries, but if you order the salmon, you get some nice steamed broccoli. So I don’t necessarily contribute the weight loss to the fish but to leading me to healthier patterns of eating.

Paul Greenberg looks out at an anchoveta fleet in Peru. The fish is mostly ground up for use as feed on animal and fish farms.

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Paul Greenberg looks out at an anchoveta fleet in Peru. The fish is mostly ground up for use as feed on animal and fish farms.

Courtesy of FRONTLINE

We’ll let people watch the documentary to see how your health is affected by eating fish for a year. Given what you learned while making the film, what’s your approach to eating fish going forward?

So, people will see in the film that I get some disturbing results regarding my mercury levels at the end of a year. [Large amounts of mercury released from coal-powered plants ends up in the oceans and eventually, in marine organisms, including fish.]

I’m not a child or a woman of childbearing age, so I can be a little cavalier with my mercury levels. But I’ve backed away from eating fish every day. I’ve probably backed down to three or four times per week, which is still double what the average American eats. And I try to eat more mussels.

Any fish recipe recommendations?

I had a really intense embrace of the anchovy, particularly the Peruvian anchoveta, 90 percent of which is ground up and fed to pigs, chickens and farmed fish. But it’s a really good source of protein and omega-3s.

When we went to Peru for the film, we went to a cannery in the south. They were so excited someone wanted to eat the fish as opposed to grind them up, that they gave me a 10-lb container of anchovies. I found anchovies are good in an omelet. And a piece of sourdough with free-range butter and anchovies: delicious.

Natalie Jacewicz is a science writer living in New York City.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2017/04/24/525111293/what-fish-is-good-for-me-and-the-planet-new-documentary-explores?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

Updated at 7:30 p.m. ET

An article on a State Department website about President Trump’s Mar-a-Lago resort has been removed after criticism that it was an inappropriate use of taxpayer funds.

Critics complained that resources were being used to tout the for-profit club, which Trump refers to as the Winter White House. The club, in Palm Beach, Fla., is held in Trump’s trust, of which he is the sole beneficiary.

“The intention of the article was to inform the public about where the President has been hosting world leaders. We regret any misperception and have removed the post,” a State Department official said in a statement that has now replaced the original article.

The ShareAmerica website says it “is part of the Bureau of International Information Programs, which works with U.S. embassies and consulates in more than 140 countries to engage with people around the globe on U.S. foreign policy and American society.”

But on the webpage about Mar-a-Lago, there was no discussion of policy. The page showed photos of the members-only club’s opulent rooms and exterior, and noted that “When he acquired the house, Trump also bought the decorations and furnishings that [original owner Marjorie Merriweather] Post had collected over the years, preserving Mar-a-Lago’s style and taste.”

The website generated attention Monday when Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Ore., and others started tweeting about it. In one tweet, Wyden said: “Yes, I am curious @StateDept. Why are taxpayer $$ promoting the President’s private country club?”

In another tweet, he steered people to the webpage, saying: “Here’s the full post in its kleptocratic glory.”

American Oversight, a watchdog group that includes some lawyers who worked at agencies in the Obama administration, said earlier Monday it would file a complaint with the State Department’s inspector general and the Office of Government Ethics. The group says that “promoting Mar-a-Lago appears to violate Section 2635.702 of the Standards of Ethical Conduct, which prohibits government employees from using their public office to endorse private enterprise.”

American Oversight also had said it would ask congressional oversight committees to conduct an “investigation into how and why the article promoting Trump properties was written and distributed.”

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/24/525444099/state-department-website-features-trumps-for-profit-club-mar-a-lago?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

Ballots are prepared for counting at a polling station in Rouen, northern France, during the first round of the French presidential elections, on Sunday.

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Ballots are prepared for counting at a polling station in Rouen, northern France, during the first round of the French presidential elections, on Sunday.

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Updated at 11:50 p.m. EST

French presidential election candidate for the En Marche ! movement Emmanuel Macron (L) stands next to his wife, Brigitte Trogneux as he casts his ballot at a polling station in Le Touquet, northern France, on April 23, 2017, during the first round of the Presidential election.

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French presidential election candidate for the En Marche ! movement Emmanuel Macron (L) stands next to his wife, Brigitte Trogneux as he casts his ballot at a polling station in Le Touquet, northern France, on April 23, 2017, during the first round of the Presidential election.

Philippe Wojazer/AFP/Getty Images

Emmanuel Macron, a centrist politician who’s never held elective office, and Marine Le Pen, the far-right firebrand who wants to take France out of the European Union, are expected to advance to next month’s runoff for the presidency of the country, according to official results.

When the final numbers trickled in, Macron had nearly 24 percent of the vote, followed by Le Pen at around 22 percent. Francois Fillon, the only establishment candidate among the front-runners, appeared tied for third place with left-wing politician Jean-Luc Melenchon with around 20 percent of the vote each.

National Front Leader Marine Le Pen, casts her vote for the French elections in a polling station on April 23, 2017 in Henin Beaumont, France.

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National Front Leader Marine Le Pen, casts her vote for the French elections in a polling station on April 23, 2017 in Henin Beaumont, France.

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Our original post continues:

If the numbers hold up as expected, it will set up a battle in May between two politicians with not only completely different visions for France but — more significantly — utterly different views of one of the biggest issues facing many voters in the West today: globalization.

Macron is a liberal, former investment banker and an avowed internationalist who worked as economy minister in France’s Socialist government. Le Pen has run a tough, anti-immigrant campaign and has vowed to take France out of the European Union. If she were successful, it would probably sink an institution that has helped bind Europe together for decades.

Last night, rival politicians, including Fillon, the nominee of the conservative Republican Party, began to rally around Macron to prevent Le Pen from taking the presidency.

“There is no other choice but to vote against the far right, I will vote for Emmanuel Macron,” Fillon told supporters.

Elsewhere in Europe, liberal globalists cheered Macron’s strong showing. A spokesman for Germany’s Angela Merkel said she wished him “all the best,” and Peter Altmaier, Merkel’s chief of staff tweeted: “The result for @EmmanuelMacron shows: France AND Europe can win together! The middle is stronger than the populists believe!” European Commission President Jean-Claus Juncker congratulated him as well.

In his victory speech, Macron, 39, sounded at times as if he’d already won the election.

“I want to be the president of all the people of France,” he said. “The challenge is to open a new page in our political life and to take action so that everyone his able to find his or her place in France and in Europe.”

By contrast, Le Pen called her second-place finish an “historic result” and urged “all patriots” to back her party in next month’s runoff.

“Now, we have an enormous responsibility to defend the French culture,” she told supporters. “You will get a France that protects the people, we will not have the free circulation of terrorists.”

For France, today’s results mark a political earthquake. French voters appear to have sent a strong rebuke to the country’s traditional political parties. For the first time since the end of World War II, an establishment right or left-wing party will not control the presidency.

After many years of high unemployment and a steady drumbeat of political scandals, voters turned their backs on the establishment and instead backed a political newcomer in Macron and a far-right candidate in Le Pen.

Olivier Duhamel, a political scientist at Sciences Po Paris, one of France’s top universities, said the fact that someone with so little experience came out on top today was stunning.

“A man nobody knew, a very young man, this is incredibly American, this is absolutely not French,” he said. “That proves that France in a way, this evening, is less of a monarchy and more a democracy.”

For Americans, Duhamel said it would have been the equivalent of Ross Perot beating then-incumbent U.S. President George H.W. Bush and Democratic nominee Bill Clinton in the 1992 election.

Political analysts say Macron’s apparent win today showed that many French people still believe in a more liberal, open, global society even as populists have won big victories in the last year with the United Kingdom’s vote to leave the European Union and Donald Trump’s election in the United States.

“We should not underestimate the capacity of resistance of other groups within societies, which are supporting more moderate parties,” said Alain Dieckhoff, head of the Center for International Research at Sciences Po.

The runoff election will take place May 7, and the country will hold parliamentary elections about a month after that.

Polls suggest and many analysts predict that Macron enjoys a steep advantage going into a head-to-head race with Le Pen.

“I think that the success — even if it’s just the first round now — of Macron is also a good indication there are still very powerful forces in French society … [that] don’t really want to go in the direction of populist parties and really xenophobic positions,” says Dieckhoff.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/04/23/525334918/macron-le-pen-expected-to-advance-to-french-presidential-runoff?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

Designer Anastasiya Rudnik is a co-owner of the Ukrainian Street Wear shop in central Kiev.

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Designer Anastasiya Rudnik is a co-owner of the Ukrainian Street Wear shop in central Kiev.

Lucian Kim/NPR

A couple of years ago, Kiev business journalist Yuliya Savostina decided to try an experiment: to spend a year living off food and other goods produced exclusively in Ukraine.

Inspired by the local food movement in the United States, Savostina started a blog to document her experience. She didn’t expect it to last very long.

“I was sure that there weren’t any cosmetics or toothpaste or normal shoes that you could wear,” Savostina says. “But, literally, by the end of the first month I realized that Ukraine makes practically everything — you just have to look for it.”

To her great surprise, Savostina discovered that her country, once the breadbasket of the Soviet Union, produces luxury foods such as caviar, snails and Spanish-style jamon. When she thought scurvy might be setting in after a long winter, Savostina even found domestically cultivated kiwis and oranges.

Savostina’s experiment came to an end in early 2014 as Ukraine was rocked by violent anti-government protests and a Russian military intervention. Many of her readers turned to her for advice on where they could buy domestic substitutes for Russian-made goods. That summer, Savostina helped organize one of the first pop-up markets to feature Ukrainian producers.

Vsi.Svoi, or All.Ours, is a multilevel store in central Kiev selling only Ukrainian-made clothes, shoes and accessories.

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Vsi.Svoi, or All.Ours, is a multilevel store in central Kiev selling only Ukrainian-made clothes, shoes and accessories.

Lucian Kim/NPR

The surge in patriotic feelings coincided with the crash of the Ukrainian currency, the hryvna, driving up demand for locally made goods even more.

It was around that time that Anastasiya Rudnik opened a basement shop in downtown Kiev featuring Ukrainian streetwear, including clothes she designs herself.

Three underground rooms are lined with racks of hoodies, sweatshirts and jackets in camouflage, black and gray. They’re the kind of clothes any self-respecting skateboarder would wear in Los Angeles or Portland — only they’re all made in Ukraine.

“We try to buy Ukrainian fabrics as much as possible,” Rudnik, 24, says. “We do everything with love. We create each piece individually, not by mass production.”

Growing their businesses is one of the main challenges for Ukrainian entrepreneurs, says journalist Savostina. Other hurdles include the country’s notorious bureaucracy, heavy tax burden and the high cost of borrowing.

For small- and medium-sized Ukrainian businesses, it’s not so much a question of improving quality as the marketing behind it, says Veronika Movchan, an economist with the Institute for Economic Research and Policy Consulting in Kiev.

Socks are among the products sold at Kiev’s Vsi.Svoi.

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Socks are among the products sold at Kiev’s Vsi.Svoi.

Lucian Kim/NPR

“What Ukrainians should probably learn from Americans is how to sell their products, how to pack them, how to label them, how to advertise them and how promote them on the domestic and external markets,” Movchan says.

Although startups and boutique designers still make up a small part of the overall economy, Movchan says the entrepreneurial skills young Ukrainians are learning are essential for the country’s future development.

One of the best symbols of that new entrepreneurship is Vsi.Svoi, or All.Ours, a multilevel store on Kiev’s main shopping street featuring dozens of brands of Ukrainian-made clothes, shoes and accessories.

The store opened in September, with prices for a coat ranging from $90 to $250 and a dress from $20 to $150.

“I want to make it normal to buy Ukrainian, like from any other international retailer,” says founder Anna Lukovkina, 32.

A lot of the Ukrainian brands have generic-sounding English names like Truman, Brooklyn or Zen Wear. But there are also distinctly Ukrainian labels like Zerno, Kozzyr, Etnodim, Kozzachka and Cabanchi.

Once those designers have established themselves at home, Lukovkina says, they’ll be ready to conquer the world.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2017/04/23/524409468/young-entrepreneurs-find-funky-niche-in-products-made-in-ukraine?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world



RAY SUAREZ, HOST:

We start the show in France where polls have now closed in the first round of the French presidential election. And most of the projections say the centrist Emmanuel Macron and the far-right candidate Marine Le Pen will meet in the runoff in two weeks’ time. The conservative Francois Fillon conceded defeat and said he would be voting for Macron in the second round.

NPR’s Eleanor Beardsley joins us now from Paris. Eleanor, you were in Macron headquarters when the first projections came in. What was the atmosphere like?

ELEANOR BEARDSLEY, BYLINE: That’s right, Ray. Well, let me just play a little tape here. As they usually do, every presidential election, they announce the results on the nightly news, and they do a countdown, and then the two top winners come up. And this is that happening.

UNIDENTIFIED CROWD: (Cheering).

BEARDSLEY: So Ray, people just exploded in joy. It’s not like it wasn’t expected, but now it’s real.

SUAREZ: What does this tell us about the political state of play in France to have essentially two outsiders, Emmanuel Macron and Marine Le Pen, finish first and second?

BEARDSLEY: Yeah, this is a year like – a political year like no other. Establishment politicians have been swept away. And there is a growth in the far-right populism. But I think what it tells us is that people are ready to sweep away the old and try the new. They want renewal. And even though these two scores were close, openness and a pro-European feeling won out. We see European flags waving alongside the French flags here. But one thing is for sure, the old ways are gone. The established politicians are out. This is a totally new age.

SUAREZ: The projections only separate Macron and Le Pen by a few points. Is the final runoff likely to be as close as round one?

BEARDSLEY: Yes, they’re separated by two points. That’s because there were 11 candidates. The Socialist Party was split, so all the votes were scattered out. In the second round, there will be two candidates, and it’s not likely to be close at all. But this doesn’t take away the feeling that the far-right got its biggest score ever in a presidential election. And I spoke with Marie Celine Terre, who’s very happy that her candidate won, but here’s what she said.

MARIE CELINE TERRE: First, I feel sorry because I think that Marine Le Pen is too high, and it’s not a good news for our country because there is Donald Trump, there is Putin. Second, I’m very happy because I was voting for Emmanuel Macron, and it’s good news for France. It’s a new era, I hope, and a new – something new is coming.

SUAREZ: Well, yes, and if, as you say, Marine Le Pen can’t improve on her current showing very much, while Macron may be able to. The National Front has contested French elections for decades. The party has a national network in place were Marine Le Pen to become president. But let’s look at Emmanuel Macron. Has France ever had an independent president, a president without a party?

BEARDSLEY: Absolutely never. It’s astounding. He created this movement in August of last year, and he’s just – he wasn’t even known three years ago. So we have this 39-year-old former investment banker. He says he’s not left or right but progressive. He wants to make France innovative and risk-taking. This is something we’ve never seen before in France, and people are just agog.

SUAREZ: That’s NPR’s Eleanor Beardsley reporting from Paris. Good to talk to you.

BEARDSLEY: You too, Ray.

Copyright © 2017 NPR. All rights reserved. Visit our website terms of use and permissions pages at www.npr.org for further information.

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Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/23/525339879/in-french-election-established-politicians-are-out?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

Venezuelans have been protesting President Nicolas Maduro’s government over a deep economic recession and massive food and medicine shortages. Reuters reporter Girish Gupta gives developments.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/22/525250813/protests-against-president-maduro-in-venezuela-near-breaking-point?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

Journalist Ahmed Rashid talks about Friday’s attack on an Afghanistan military base. More than 100 people are reported dead making it the deadliest attack there since 2001.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/22/525250820/taliban-was-able-to-penetrate-afghanistan-military-base-before-attack?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

France faces its most important presidential race in more than five decades. But polls show many French voters are undecided or might not vote at all.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/22/525250827/french-voters-still-undecided-for-sundays-presidential-election?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world

NPR’s Hector Silva Avalos, a research fellow at American University, about the history of the criminal organization MS-13 and the recent statement from the Department of Justice.

Article source: http://www.npr.org/2017/04/21/525110150/jeff-sessions-issues-warning-after-brutal-long-island-killing-by-ms-13?utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=world